Caroline Elaine Clifford

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IEE Research Themes
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Titles and Affiliations
Senior Research Associate, Agricultural & Biological Engineering

Research Summary

Areas of research include catalytic coal liquefaction on medium and low rank coals, conversion of coal into premium carbon products, coal conversion into liquids and solids using petroleum based solvents, biomass (lignin) conversion into value-added liquids and carbon fuels, and co-processing of coal/biomass into liquid fuels.

Research Keywords

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Recent Publications

Characterization of cokes from delayed Co-Coking of decant oil, coal, resid, and cracking catalyst

Gül, Ö., Mitchell, G., Etter, R., Miller, J. & Clifford, C. E., Jan 15 2015, In : Energy and Fuels. 29, 1, p. 21-34 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Interactions of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal with solvents: A review of solvent swelling and extraction literature

Mathews, J. P., Clifford, C. E. & Painter, P., Mar 19 2015, In : Energy and Fuels. 29, 3, p. 1279-1294 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Comparative study on structural parameters of graphitized coal-petroleum co-cokes and pennsylvania anthracites, with implications for their use

Nyathi, M. S., Burgess Clifford, C. & Schobert, H. H., Mar 20 2014, In : Energy and Fuels. 28, 3, p. 2280-2285 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Subcritical water reactions of lignin-related model compounds with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide gases

Hill Bembenic, M. A. & Burgess Clifford, C. E., Nov 21 2013, In : Energy and Fuels. 27, 11, p. 6681-6694 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Characterization of graphitic materials prepared from different rank Pennsylvania anthracites

Nyathi, M. S., Clifford, C. B. & Schobert, H. H., Jan 1 2013, In : Fuel. 114, p. 244-250 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Subcritical water reactions of a hardwood derived organosolv lignin with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide gases

Hill Bembenic, M. A. & Burgess Clifford, C. E., Jul 19 2012, In : Energy and Fuels. 26, 7, p. 4540-4549 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Effect of petroleum feedstock and reaction conditions on the structure of coal-petroleum co-cokes and heat-treated products

Nyathi, M. S., Clifford, C. E. & Schobert, H. H., Jul 19 2012, In : Energy and Fuels. 26, 7, p. 4413-4419 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

The effect of calcination on reactive milling of anthracite as potential precursor for graphite production

Clifford, C. E., Narayanan, D. L., Van Essendelft, D. T., Jain, P., Sakti, A. & Lueking, A., Dec 1 2009, In : Fuel processing technology. 90, 12, p. 1515-1523 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Solvent extraction of bituminous coals using light cycle oil: Characterization of diaromatic products in liquids

Griffith, J. M., Clifford, C. E., Rudnick, L. R. & Schobert, H. H., Sep 17 2009, In : Energy and Fuels. 23, 9, p. 4553-4561 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle